Quality casting is a long-lasting process

Gravity die casting, a type of permanent mold casting, is an important manufacturing technique that holds a prominent place in modern industry. This method involves the creation of complex metal components by pouring molten metal into a reusable mold. One of gravity die casting’s primary strengths lies in its ability to minimize porosity and air entrapment during casting. This results in components with heightened structural integrity and a reduced likelihood of defects.

What Is Gravity casting?

Gravity casting is among the oldest known processes for fabricating metals and metal alloys. It involves the pouring of molten metal from a crucible into a mold under only the force of gravity, without the use of pressurized gases, vacuums, or centrifugal force.

Small-scale molds used for this form of casting have most commonly been made of sand, tufa stone, and cuttlebone as well as charcoal and plaster as these materials are generally easy to shape (unlike iron or steel), do not break down when suddenly exposed to high temperatures (unlike glass, wood, or plastic), do not deform easily (unlike silicone) and are widely available.

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How Does Gravity Die Casting Differ From Other Types of Casting?

Gravity die casting distinguishes itself from other casting methods in several key aspects. Gravity die casting is a metal casting process where molten metal is poured into a durable metal mold using gravity. Once the metal cools and solidifies, the mold is opened to retrieve the casting.
• In sand casting, compacted sand is placed around a wooden or metal pattern, and additional cores are inserted to create internal features. Molten metal is then introduced into the sand molds. The molds are subsequently fractured to extract the castings.
• In low-pressure die casting, molten metal is introduced into the mold under relatively low pressure, which helps reduce turbulence and air entrapment, resulting in higher-quality castings.
• In high-pressure die casting, die casting is a high-pressure casting method where molten metal is forced into a mold cavity under high pressure.
Investment casting, on the other hand, involves creating a wax pattern that is coated with a ceramic shell. Once the shell is hardened, the wax is melted out, leaving a hollow cavity. Molten metal is then poured into the cavity. In squeeze casting, a precise quantity of molten metal is poured into a die via gravity. Pressure is exerted until the part solidifies. Cores can be employed to craft internal features.

Gravity Die Casting Also Called the Lost Wax Process

Gravity casting is also referred to as lost wax casting because the pattern is made out of wax. Lost wax casting or precision casting is known for its accuracy in part reproduction with tight tolerances.

What Is the Importance of Gravity Die Casting in Manufacturing?

The importance of gravity die casting in manufacturing lies in its capacity to deliver moderate dimensional accuracy and consistency. This technique enables the creation of complex parts with less energy consumption than high-pressure casting due to gravity being the source of pressure.

Gravity die casting offers several advantages over other casting methods, such as sand casting, low-pressure casting, high-pressure casting, and investment casting. Unlike sand casting, which is suitable for prototypes and small-volume production, gravity die casting strikes a balance between moderate dimensional accuracy and production volume. It is well-suited for demands ranging from 250 to 50,000 units per annum. Its cast iron or steel molds provide greater accuracy and cost-effectiveness compared to sand casting’s wooden or resin patterns.

Understanding Your Construction Industry Needs

Which Industries Use the Gravity Die Casting Process?

Gravity die-cast components are used in every industrial domain, including: automotive, marine, defense, architectural and construction applications, electronics, complex machinery, and consumer appliances.

How Does Gravity Die Casting Work?

Gravity casting works by allowing molten metal to flow gently into a permanent mold under the influence of gravity alone. Vents and risers on the mold allow the escape of gasses and the complete filling of the mold with minimal porosity due to trapped gasses. The liquid metal solidifies quickly because the mold is also made of metal, which rapidly conducts heat away from the just-poured casting.

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